Incorrect functioning of an organ or a structure can be classified under disease. If a plant or human being has any abnormality or complaint or derangement or indisposition or disorder in any part of the body, it is defined as a disease.
The factors that cause physical or mental pain or distress are called the disease. Diseases can affect both the physical structure (internal and external parts of the body) and the mind.
There are 10 well-known synonyms of the disease in Sanskrit. They are Rog, Papma, Jvara, Vyadhi, Dukha, Amaya, Yakshma, Atanka, Gada, and Abadha. Let us see the description of each synonym.
Rog: A disease that gives pain to any part of your body. In Sanskrit, it means disease, and its derivation is from Ruga, pain or misery. Human beings get both physical and mental diseases, and pains; however, the mental pains are more dangerous and painful than the physical ones. The examples of this mental disease are anger, fear, anxiety, stress, and so on, while the examples of the physical disease are a pain in any part of the body.
Papma: A disease caused due to our sins, both physically and mentally. Mental sins are our desires, greed, jealousy, pride, covetousness, and so on. Physical sins are being a glutton, involving oneself in adultery, and so on.
Jvara: A disease caused by nature. Jvara, in Sanskrit, it means hot or fever. In other words, to be ill. It is caused in the duodenum, and mostly it is an air-borne disease.
Vyadhi: A disease that causes abnormalities, disorder, ailments, and so on in a living being is Vyadhi.
Dukha: In Sanskrit, it means sadness. It is the result of any physical pain, illness, loss of loved ones, even old age, or any disease.
Amaya: A disease caused due to indigestion. When the food remains undigested or is improperly digested, you tend to have improperly processed food or drink known as Ama. You experience these kinds of diseases due to decreased enzyme activity. In the case of internal diseases, their origin is Ama, while in the external disease the end is the production of Ama.
Yakshma: It indicates Tuberculosis. It also indicates a syndrome, which means few symptoms together indicate a disease.
Atanka: Agony or miserable feeling. Normally, when a human being is infected with a disease, you can see misery in his/her life.
Gada: Sometimes, a disease can be caused through or by various factors, and if all the factors arise at the same time, it is Gada.
Abadha: When you feel constant physical or mental discomfort, or have constant physical or mental sufferings, it is known as Abadha.
You can classify the diseases into six categories depending on the instability of Doshas, a different combination of five elements (Air, Water, Earth, Fire, and Ether) in the form of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. They are:
Samanyaj: When there is a problem with the stability of one or all the Doshas, this kind of disease arises.
Nanatmaj: When there is a problem of stability with just one Dosha, this kind of disease would occur.
Sadhya and Asadhya: Sadhya means diseases that can be cured while Asadhya refers to chronic illness.
Sadhya is classified into Sukhasadhya and Kruchchhasadhya, while Asadhya into Yapya and Pratyakhey.
Agantuj: When you get a disease due to foreign bodies entering the system.
Nijroga: When all the Doshas are unstable, you get this kind of disease.
Manas: When the Doshas interfere with the nervous system functioning, a person tends to get this disease.
Most of the diseases result as the consequence of any kind of genetic or development issues, infections, poisons, or so on. Most of them are curable with the help of Ayurveda.
A condition of abnormal functioning of any part of the body of a human being or a plant or an animal is known as disease.
When any living being suffers from an impairment of the normal state or the vital functions’ performance is interrupted or modified, it is also known as disease.
There can be many kinds of diseases, and their causes are innumerable.
The malnutrition, industrial hazards, climate, infective agents, genetic or hereditary problems, and so on can be the causes for the diseases. There are both harmful and harmless diseases.
Harmful diseases are either incurable or fatal or contagious in nature. Harmless diseases are common ailments that can even be communicable.
Nidan Panchak is a Sanskrit word with the meaning of Five Clues to diagnose the disease. It also includes the conversion process of the normal physiology to pathology that causes diseases. If you are well-versed in Ayurveda, you would be aware that it is a method to diagnose the disease, the root cause of it along with the tracing of its evolution. The five methods to identify diseases and their pathology are:
- Hetu Nidan (Causative factors)
- Poorvaroop (Preindicating signs and symptoms)
- Roop (Indicating signs and symptoms)
- Upshaya (Therapeutic test)
- Samprapti (Pathology)
Let us see each method with their descriptions.
It is also known as a causative factor that is responsible for the disease-causing pathologies. Internal or Nija and External or Agantu are the two types of Hetu.
The balance of the three doshas like Vata, Pitta, and Kapha can be disturbed by the Hetus.
The different branches or factors of Hetu are Close factor, distant factor, weak factor, and string factors.
Asatmiya Indriyartha Sanjog is another type of Hetu, which is again divided into different categories like Atiyog or overuse, Hinyog or underuse, and Mithyayog or misuse.
Another type of Hetu is Pragyaparadh, which again is divided into three groups like Dhi or intellectual, Dhriti or awareness, and Smruthi or memory.
The next type of Hethu is Parinama or time, which is divided into three categories: Hinayog, Mithyayog, and Atiyog. Dosha Hetu, Vyadhihetu or diseased factor, Ubhayahetu or combined factor, Utpadakhetu or predisposing factor, Vyanjakhetu or exciting factor, Bahyahetu or external factor, and Abhyantarhetu or internal factors are different factors in Hetu.
The signs and symptoms that appear during the disease development are helpful in diagnosing or identifying the disease, and this is known as Poorvaroop or pre-indicating signs and symptoms. This is divided into two types: General and Special pre-indicating signs and symptoms.
The signs and symptoms that appear after the disease development help in diagnosing the disease and this is known as Roop or indicative signs and symptoms. Roop is also known as Sansthan, Vainjan, Linga, Lakshan, Chinham or Akruthi.
It is also known as a therapeutic test that helps to treat an ailment through medicine, diet, and conduct.
It is known as Pathology in English, and in Sanskrit, it is Jati and Agati. From the disturbance of equilibrium of doshas, and undergoing different stages, to the causing of the disease, the process is known as Samprapti.
Diabetes, gastritis, acidity, coughs, cold, hiccups, anemia, loss of appetite, obesity, and so on are some of the various common diseases.
Akasha Shabda Aapratighata
Panchamahabhoota is a very important aspect of understanding and practicing Ayurveda Medicine as a science.
As it is known from the history of herbal medicine, the first existent element was not a synonym to the sky but more conceptually similar to space. To understand the perspective of Akasha, Ayurveda suggests that one needs a deeper connoisseur of the time and space universe concept.
Following is an extract taken from the book ‘Music of the Spheres’ written by Guy Murchie which will help us understand more this subject;
“To understand what this fantastic world is all about – to see its basic pattern and meaning – I must crane my soul to examine it deeply and, in so far as is possible, independently. I must seek a perspective far beyond the traditional, beyond the safe and proper, even beyond the human.
When I was a child, I used to think that little things were simpler than big things. One day wandering in the woods, I suddenly understood that the smallness off an acron (Oak seed) may not really make it any simpler than the oak, for it as surely contains oaks as the oak contains acrons.
And ever since then, whenever space outside our world of sense seems more important or more impressive than the space within the atom, I can remind myself that the differences are only relative and almost certainly as illusionary.”
According to Ayurveda health, Anadi and Ananti form the Akasha that does not have a beginning or an end but it is omnipresent, or in other words, ever existing. We also have to dedicate particular attention to the ‘Apratighatatwa guna’ thanks to which the akasha exists.
As anything has to have its own space where to exist, so is the human body in need of its own space, another herbal medicines’ proven theology. The human’s bodily cells and organs also need their space in order to exist.
Ayurveda medicine teaches us that, as the outer space is the habitat for our body in general, our body is the existing space for the billions of cells and numerous organs contained.
History of herbal medicine dictates that the outer space is made of nothing else but the inner space itself, therefore proving the Sarvavyapakatwa of the Akasha basic element.
One of the attributed senses to the Aksha is the Shabda (sound) which is a basic form of energy that is also omnipresent, as referred to by the same Ayurveda herb solutions.
According to the Hindu philosophy deriving from Ayurveda India native country, ‘AUM’ was the first Shabda from which the universe was generated. A collective group of Shabda constitutes a mantra, a specific energy field.
Ashtanga Ayurveda and Agni-Shabda
History of herbal medicine texts that relate to Ashtanga Ayurveda provides information on the main branches of Ayurveda, namely;
- Surgery (Shalya)
- ENT with Ophthalmology (Shalakya)
- Medicine (Kaya)
- Bhoota, Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Pediatrics (Kaumara)
- Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology (Agada)
- Gerontology (Rasayan)
- Science of Aphrodisiac (Vajikarana)
‘Upaveda of Atharvaveda’ contains one million shlokas in the form of rhymes and divided into one thousand chapters. Written by Brahma, it is referred to by Ayurveda medicine as Brahma Sanhita.
The Ayurveda care herbal science inscriptions had to be re-written across the ages due to the decline in the human’s life span and intellectual level.
Shalya – The word itself refers to the things and senses that cause discomfort to both body and mind. The Shalya consist of two main groups, the Sharir referring to the discomforts inside the body, and the Agantuj for those on the outside of the body.
Shalya Tantra (Surgery) – The tantra procedure, an Ayurveda health surgery, includes the utilizing of the following resources in order to remove any Shalya from one’s body; Yantra (Tools), Shastra (Instruments), Kshara (Alkalies) and Agni (Fire).
Shalakya – An Ayurveda therapy dealing with disorders related to the ear, eyes, nose, and throat.
Kaya Chikitsa (Medicine/therapeutics) – The section of herbal medicines treating the internal disorders. The literal meaning of the word ‘Kaya’ means Agni (while Chikitsa means treatment), and on the Kaya/Agni concept are based all of the Ayurveda treatments and medicines.
The Kaya transforms all the vitamins, minerals, etc… to bodily needed substances. The good balance of the Kaya will reflect on one’s bodily condition, whereas the imbalance of the Kaya will produce the loss of one’s equilibrium and set out a series of diseases and/or disorders.
Bhoota (Graha) – The Ayurveda care herbal science’s branch dealing with diseases deriving from unknown causes.
Bala / Kaumara – Ayurveda herbal remedies section dealing with;
- Child Bearing (pregnancy)
- Child Birth (delivery)
- Children’s Diseases (pediatrics)
Rasayana Tantra – Deals with different aspects of preventive health care, whereas Rasayana improves the metabolic activities leading to good health.
Vajikarana – Ayurveda’s branch dealing in sexual problems and/or diseases concerned.
Agni Mahaboota is the major constituent for one’s biological humor pitta doshas as we have learned from the history of herbal medicine’s teachings.
Ayurveda health has for long based its opinion on proven natural herbal medicine that has also taught us that the Agni is the provider of the necessary energy needed by our body’s activities and also very beneficiary for the bodily cells.
Ayurveda medicine also instructs us on the importance of the Agni’s balance whereas if the Agni is in disorder, it will result in the same effect in the homeostasis (equilibrium).
Ayurveda treatments also warn that once the equilibrium’s balance is disturbed will also disturb the physiology.
The entire Ayurveda therapy repertoire is built on these credentials regarding the Agnis. Ayurveda cares herbal studies’ branch that treats internal herbal medicines and practices is known as Kayachikitsa.
And to give you a more in-depth definition of this Ayurveda India’s native name, ‘kaya’ means Agni while ‘Chikitsa’ refers to treatment.
The word Bhaishajya means ‘medicine’ while Kalpana represents the word ‘forms’.
In Ayurveda medicine, this is the branch that deals with the various forms of medicine such as syrups, juice, tablet, and powder.
- Increases the potency of medicine by Sanskar (adding or generating special property)
- Turns the medicine more durable
- Medicine is palatable
- Removes the toxic effect of medicine by Shodhana Karm
- Balances the Dosha
- Formulates the medicine
Panchavidha Kashaya Kalpana
According to the Pancha Vidha Kashaya Kalpana section Ayurveda health medicine has five basic forms. The word Kashaya denotes distortion of the original shape of Dravya during medical preparations
Yoni (sources) of Kashaya Kalpana
The five Rasas (tastes) are the five Yoni (source) of kashaya Kalpana i.e. Madhur, Amla, Katu, Tikta, Kashaya. There are five Kashaya Kalpana that are more efficient in potency than the other ones:
- Swaras Kashaya Kalpana (juice)
- Kalka Kashaya Kalpana (jelly-like)
- Kwatha Kashaya Kalpana (decoction)
- Shita Kashaya Kalpana (cold infusion)
- Phanta Kashaya Kalpana (infusion)
Means the juice of the Dravya hence is said to be its Swarasa. Preparation; Crush the Dravya properly and filter juice with the help of clean cotton cloth.
When the plant utilized is not so juicy, its nectar has to be extracted or prepared by Putapaka method, as follows: Dravya is collected in a bunch then covered by a wet wheat dove after which, a layer of clay is laid over it and kept in the fire.
After it becomes red in color, the shell, or Muda, together with the wheat flour are removed. The juice can then be extracted by crushing and filtering.
Kalka The crushed paste form of Dravya. Preparation; Crush the Dravya properly until it turns into a paste. Dry the powder then mix with water to turn into a paste or Kalka Dosage i.e. 1 tola (10gms approx) Kwatha Dravya boiled in water and filtered.
Preparation; Crush the Dravya thoroughly and mix it in water then boil on slow fire till it reduces to half or one-fourth of the original quantity to finally filter properly.
The quantity of water used is determined by the following rules; Four times more must be the water than the medicine for Mridu (soft) Dravya Eight times more must be the water than the medicine for Madhya Dravya Sixteen times more must be the water than the medicine for Kathina (hard) Dravya according to the quantity of medicine.
- If the quantity of medicine is 5 to 16 tola (50 to 160gms approx) then add eight times the quantity with water.
- If the quantity of medicine is above 16 tolas (160gms approx) then add to 4 times water. Dosage – 4 tola (40gms approx)
- If the medicine is less than four tolas (40gms approx) then add 16 times the quantity with water.
Hot water is added to the medicine and then it is kept outside for 12 hours at night. The whole process is called Shita Kalpana. Preparation To the powdered form of medicine six times water is added. The choice of hot and cold water is up to the user. The mixer is now kept for 12hrs at night in an open place. Medicine is ready for use by the next morning.
Dosage – 4 tola (40gms approx.) Phanta Mixing of medicine in boiled water, then covering it and leaving to cool. Preparation Boil 16 tola (160gms approx) water, then add four tolas (40gms approx) powder form (not fine) of medicine in it. Keep the container for cooling and use it in lukewarm (Koshna) condition. Dosage: 4 tola to 8 tolas (40gms to 80gms approx)
Chhardi, in Sanskrit, is known as Vomiting and is formed by combining two words chad and ard. Chhad means to cover or to fill, and ard means pain or discomfort, with the combined term meaning pain or discomfort caused by vomiting. Immense discomfort is caused to the body when the mouth is completely full of vomitus while vomiting.
Chhardi is classified into five types. They are Vataja, Kaphaja, Pittaja, Sannipataja, and Dwistharthaja meaning contact with digesting object.
The pre-indicating signs and symptoms are Utklesha or nausea, Kapha Praseko or excessive saliva and Dwesho Ashaneya or food aversion.
The general causes for vomiting are excessive intake of fluids, or unctuous food, consumption of food with excess salt, overeating and irregular food intake, incompatible food intake or allergies to certain foods, fatigue, fear, grief, anger, indigestion, worm infestation, pregnancy vomiting, improper chewing of food.
The clinical features or the indicating signs and symptoms are different for different types of Chhardi.
- For Vataja Chhardi, one would experience pain in the head, chest & navel, mouth dryness, voice hoarseness, pricking pain, vomiting with a loud sound of belching. Moreover, the vomitus is black in color, frothy, broken up, thin & astringent, little in quantity.
- In Pittaja Chhardi, one experiences thirst, mouth dryness, burning sensation in the head, palate & eyes, feeling of darkness, and giddiness. Moreover, vomitus will be green, yellow, hot, bitter & smoky.
- Feeling drowsy, mouth sweetness, excessive saliva, contentment, sleep, anorexia, and heaviness are experienced in Kaphaja Chhardi. Moreover, vomitus is solid concentrated, sweet & white & vomiting is accompanied by goose bumps or horripilation.
- In Sannipataja, severe abdominal pain, anorexia, indigestion, burning, thirst, Dyspnoea & fainting are experienced. Moreover, vomitus is salty, blue, viscous, hot & red.
- Dwisthaarthaja is caused when the person is stressed psychologically by factors such as smell, vision, or eating, disgusting, antagonistic, unclean, putrefied objects vomit, which inflict the psyche.
There are many treatments for this ailment. One can fast from the moment vomiting starts. Emesis can be administrated in case of strong people. You can give either milk or fruit juices.
Mix Saindhava with ghee, warm the mixture and give it to people suffering from it. You should also administer a Mixture of Tivrit powder and juice of Daksha and Iksu or Tailvaka Sarpi.
There are few decoctions that can be given to stop the vomiting. A piece of ginger should be mashed, and boiled in a glass of water.
Sieve the contents and drink the decoction to stop vomiting. Boil Sunthi, curd, and Dhanya in a glass of water. Sieve the contents and consume the decoction.
When vomiting is caused due to psychic stress, its better to involve that person in a favorite talk or give consolation to him or exhilaration, common stories, friends and amorous movements which can act as curative.
Commonly used drugs are Bhasma, rasa Kalpa, Lauha, Churna, and Avleha. Shankha, Kapardik are known Bhasmas available. Sutsekhar & Kamadudha is popular among Rasa Kalpa.
Under Lauha, Amlapittantak, & Dhatri Lauha are well known. Talisadi, Avipattikar, & Sitopaladi are well known churnas, Chyavan Prasha is well known Avleha.
Chikitsa – a term of Sanskrit that means treatment in which herbal and Ayurvedic medicines are included to help.
Chikitsa is one of the oldest systems in the world.
Mainly it is discovered in India and has developed over several thousands of years in India through Rishi -Muni.
In the United State and New Zealand, Chikitsa is considered as substitution medicine and hold a whole medical system in its grip.
Chikitsa is divided into three types:
1. Ekvidh Chikitsa
2. Dvividh Chikitsa
3. Trividh Chikitsa
- Dev Vyapashray
- Yukti Vyapashray
Parivarjan: in this Chikitsa it is suggested to quit excessive consumption of those things which can lead disequilibrium in your body such as yogurt (Dadhi). Excessive consumption of yogurt can cause Kapha dosha and also diabetes mellitus.
Nidanparivarjan: In this Chikitsa, we all be acquainted with the causes or the factors that endorse asymmetry between the Dhatu and mala, dosha ultimately causing to Samprapti of the disease.
Dvividh (two types)
In this type of Chikitsa some remedies are applied to the special treatments. These remedies are as following:
This remedy is used to cure some particular diseases: Vyayam (exercise), Upavas (fasting), Bhaya (fear), and Vismapan (to perplex the patient)
This remedy is used to cure those treatments which are able to restrain the reappearance of the illness.
This remedy is used to cure particular diseases.
This remedy is used to cure particular diseases but it is incapable to put off the return of ailment.
In this type of Chikitsa some special remedies are applied for deterrence of the ailment to preserve a healthy body. Urjaskar is divided on the basis of purpose or usage into the two subsequent categories:
- Vajikaran: This is a remedy for sexual stimulations, it increases the vigor of sex into human beings. Vajikaran hand out as good aphrodisiacs and persuade an instant sagacity of enjoyable enthusiasm, by the side of with augmented fertile influential emissions even in an aging human being.
- Rasayan: Rasayan remedies are associated with physiological and physical facets of health, these are also applied for rejuvenation.
Trividh Chikitsa (three types)
Dev Vyapashray: Dev Vyaparshay is an ancient form of Chikitsa that is totally based on rebirth and birth (acts of the past). The main goal of this remedy to appeal to God by gem therapy, chanting of mantras, expiation, pilgrimages, wear beads of Rudraksha, fasting and more.
Yukti Vyapashray Chikitsa is the mainly often used way of Chikitsa includes of drug therapy.
You can get it through more three ways, namely
Antah Parimarjan Chikitsa: It is applied as an internal use and can be additional divided into two dissimilar types:
- Palliative treatment
- Purification treatment
Bahi Parimarjan Chikitsa: It is applied as external use.
Shastra Pranidhan: It is a type of surgery, it is used when the chaos is because of a natural cause.
Satvawaya: This remedy is usually treating mental disorders. In case of despair is by reason of fear, lust, exhilaration, anger, jealousy or gluttony then psychiatric therapy is meant at restoring the pessimistic emotions with optimistic.
Chikitsya Padchatushtayam can be called as quadric pods of treatment as we can define it the term Paada is pods and Chatushtaya is four.
The whole Chikitsa is depending all over these four pods as Vaidya (doctor), Aushad-Dravya (medicine), Upastha (nurse) and Rogi (patient).
you can call it doctor, in Ayurveda Chikitsa vaidya has the main importance, but they must have also these following qualities:
Dakshay, vaidya should provide his services punctually in necessitate and also able to know the disease rapidly.
In this criteria of vaidya, they should be knowledgeable with an obvious hallucination in his hypothetical information.
In this criteria of vaidya, they should pursue the whole of the ayurvedic principles animatedly.
Bahusho Drishta Karma
Vaidya should be well experienced, as they did practical in their fields such as pharmacology, clinical diagnosis and all type of Chikitsa.
you can call it nurse, as we explained four things about Vaidya as four things must be included in a Upastha, that are the following:
Dakshata: Upastha can be mostly a woman, well, she must be skillful and experienced when assisting a doctor.
Bhartari: Upastha should provide her services to the Rogi with great friendliness.
Upchar Yogyata: Upastha must be trained in her profession either she has to provide all medicines.
The Upastha should be truthful in her responsibilities and must go behind the beliefs of nursing sternly.
you can call it medicine, nowhere too, we’ll provide four things related to Aushad-Dravya:
Anekvidh Kalpana: It means when several medicines are combined for one result or several, but the Aushad-Dravya must be able to structure various amalgamations to find the best results.
Bahuta: it means medicines in abundance. Aushad-Dravya must be in abundance so that it can available in shortage.
Sampati: it means medicine in wholesome, means Aushad-Dravya must be capable to exist in even seasonal changes.
Yogyatvam: It simple means applicability, Aushad-Dravya must be available to treat the particular disease devoid of any side effects.
you can call it patient and four pods are also applied for a Rogi:
Abhiruta: Each Rogi must have the courage to face and fight the disease and should take medicine by a Vaidya devoid of any type of fear and depression.
Gyapakatvam: Rogi must be as able as he/she can describe disease to the Vaidya in detail, must provide full history regarding any disease.
Nirdeshkaritvam: Rogi must be calm and must have patience, and always must follow the rules of Vaidya and Upastha.
Smruti: It means memory; a Rogi must have a good memory so that he/she could remind all instructions of Vaidya and Upastha.
Dharniyavega & Sadvritta
The human being is an embodiment of both vices and virtues. We also have the force within us that drives us onward or forward.
This force is also an impulse that prompts us to act or make an effort. All of us would like a person with virtues than vices, even though we are prone to both the characteristics.
Sadvritta means spending your life in a good way or living wisely.
The general belief is that one’s way of living and thoughts are interlinked to one’s health. There are few qualities that would be better if suppressed or have to be suppressed, and that suppression is known as Dharniya.
Vega means speed or force or an urge. Dharniya and Vega put together would mean suppressed urge. Normally, human beings have both natural and developed urges that would have to be suppressed for better and healthy living. The three types of urges are of:
Under the suppressible urges of the mind are greediness, depression, cowardice, anger, ego, shamelessness, and jealousy. Under the category of bodily urges are troubling others, violence in any form, adultery, theft and so on.
Under the suppressible urges of the tongue are unpleasing talks, telling lies, and untimely talk, that is where one is not supposed to talk, or when one is not supposed to talk.
These urges are dangerous and decide the destiny of a man, and make us an animal human being. We should be able to control them and become, if not a saint, but at least a human being.
It is an essence of all Dhatus and is necessary for the maintenance of a human being’s immune system.
It is known as the Theory of Five Elements (Water, Earth, Air, Space, and Fire are the constituents of all the living matter). The knowledge or concept of Panchabhuta Sidhantha is necessary for the knowledge of physiology, pathology, and pharmacokinetics of Ayurvedic medicine.
The resident of the body is the soul, which is known as Purusha. As per Ayurveda, there are two meanings of the soul.
One is Jeevatma or Shuddha Purusha, and the other meaning considers both the body and the soul and is otherwise known as Karma Purusha. Ayurveda is concerned about the Karma Purusha’s well being.
Types of Purusha
Purusha is classified into two categories based on the constituents: Ek Dhatwatmak Purusha, and Karma Purusha. Karma Purusha can be classified into seven categories based again on the constituents. They are:
- Dwi Dhatwatmak Purusha (two constituents)
- Tri Dhatwatmak Purusha (three constituents)
- Panchadhatwatmak (five constituents)
- Shad Dhatwatmak Purusha (six constituents)
- Sapta Dhatwatmak Purusha (seven constituents)
- Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha (twenty-four constituents)
- Twenty Five Dhatwatmak Purusha (twenty-five constituents)
The two constituents in Dwi Dhatwatmak Purusha are soul and body. The three constituents in Tri Dhatwatmak Purusha are soul, body, and mind. The five constituents in Panchadhatwatmak (it deals only with the body) are the five elements of the body.
The five elements of the body and the Atma constitute Shad Dhatwatmak Purusha. In Sapta Dhatwatmak Purusha, there are two theories, in which the first one comprises of five elements, mind and the soul. The second theory includes Rakta, Ras, Majja, Mansa, Meda, Shukra and Asthi that are the seven Dhatus of the body.
The Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha constitutes of eight Prakrutis and sixteen Vikratis. Finally, the twenty-five Dhatwatmak Purusha comprises of twenty-four constituents of Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha and the Atma or soul.