An Individual is an embodiment of both vices and virtues. All of us would like a person with virtues than vices; even though we are prone to both the characteristics. We also have the force within us that drives us onward or forward.
Dhincharya means spending your life in a good way or living wisely. This force is also an impulse that prompts us to act or make an effort.
The general belief is that one’s way of living and thoughts are interlinked to one’s health.
There are few qualities that would be better if suppressed or have to be suppressed, and that suppression is known as Dharniya. Vega means speed or force or an urge.
Dharniya and Vega put together would mean suppressed urge. Usually, human beings have both natural and developed urges that would have to be suppressed for better and healthy living. The three types of urges are of:
Under the category of bodily urges are troubling others, violence in any form, adultery, theft and so on. Under the suppressible urges of the mind are greediness, depression, cowardice, anger, ego, shamelessness, and jealousy.
These urges are dangerous and decide the destiny of a man, and make us an animal human being. Under the suppressible urges of the tongue are unpleasing talks, telling lies, and untimely talk, that is where one is not supposed to talk, or when one is not supposed to talk. We should be able to control them and become, if not a saint, but at least a human being.
It is known as the Theory of Five Elements (Water, Earth, Air, Space, and Fire are the constituents of all the living matter).
The knowledge or concept of Panchabhuta Sidhantha is necessary for the knowledge of physiology, pathology, and pharmacokinetics of Ayurvedic medicine.
It is an essence of all Dhatus, and is necessary for the maintenance of a human being’s immune system.
The resident of the body is the soul, which is known as Purusha. As per Ayurveda, there are two meanings of the soul. One is Jeevatma or Shuddha Purusha, and the other meaning considers both the body and the soul and is otherwise known as Karma Purusha. Ayurveda is concerned about the Karma Purusha’s well being.
Purusha is classified into two categories based on the constituents: Ek Dhatwatmak Purusha, and Karma Purusha. Karma Purusha can be classified into seven categories based again on the constituents. They are:
- Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha (twenty-four constituents)
- Dwi Dhatwatmak Purusha (two constituents)
- Panchadhatwatmak (five constituents)
- Shad Dhatwatmak Purusha (six constituents)
- Sapta Dhatwatmak Purusha (seven constituents)
- Twenty-Five Dhatwatmak Purusha (twenty-five constituents)
- Tri Dhatwatmak Purusha (three constituents)
The two constituents in Dwi Dhatwatmak Purusha are soul and body. The three constituents in Tri Dhatwatmak Purusha are soul, body, and mind.
The five constituents in Panchadhatwatmak (it deals only with the body) are the five elements of the body. The five elements of the body and the Atma constitute Shad Dhatwatmak Purusha.
In Sapta Dhatwatmak Purusha, there are two theories, in which the first one comprises of five elements, mind and the soul. The second theory includes the body’s seven Dhatus of the like Rakta, Ras, Mansa, Meda, Majja, Asthi, and Shukra.
The Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha constitutes of eight Prakrutis and sixteen Vikratis. Finally, the twenty-five Dhatwatmak Purusha comprises of twenty-four constituents of Chaturvinsati Dhatwatmak Purusha and the Atma or soul.
The root word or the original word, because of which Dravya has got its name, is Dru. If that has the capability to change, combine, divide, or go through a set of changes with time, it is known as Dravya.
You would have observed that almost all the things in our surroundings have this tendency or capability or characteristics, and therefore can be segregated under Dravya.
Moreover, if something acts as the substratum for modification, it is also known as Dravya. In short, you can say that substance is Dravya. If you cannot separate any of the substance’s quality, or property from its mass, then that substance is known as Dravya.
Dravyatva is known as changeability attribute, by which the substance’s modification is changed continuously and without any interruption by that quality of virtue. An entity cannot be separated from both the Dravya and mode or form. Dravya or Dhruvya means permanence also.
Dravya, which is an essential factor of other Karya Dravya, is the house of Guna and Karma. Moreover, Guna and Karma can survive only if Dravya exists. Based on categories, Dravya can be divided into two divisions:
- Karan Dravya
- Karya Dravya
Karan Dravya can only create. The destruction and further fragmentation of this Dravya are not possible. Nine Dravyas fall under this Karan Dravya.
The nine Dravyas are Prithvi or earth, ap or water, Tejas or fire, Vayu or air, akasa or sky, Kala or time, dis or direction, manas or mind, and atman or soul. In other words, the nine Dravyas constitute the Panchabhootas or great five elements (Prithvi, Ap, Vayu, Akasa, and Tejas) and other four constituents.
Prithvi is otherwise known as Mother Earth, or Dhra, Dharthi, Dhrithri with a meaning of that which holds everything.
By the appropriate combination of Karan Dravya, Karya Dravya s formed. Therefore, its origin is from Karan Dravya. Its lifetime is less and can be destroyed. After its destruction, Karya Dravya becomes one with Karan Dravya.
Dravya is for gross objects, or the physical items to be offered, or ingredients, or by the objects of the sense of enjoyment. There are ten Dravya pranas or vitalities. They are the vitalities of hearing, sight, smell, taste, touch, mind, speech, body, breath, and longevity.
Dravya is mentioned even in religions like Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. In Hinduism, God is called of nine types through His Maya, in which one Dravya is mentioned. In Jainism, Dravya bandh is nothing but the capacity of the relationship between Karman particles and the soul.
Dravya Asrav is either the thought bondage’s auxiliary cause or the material bondage’s principal cause. Dravya mun is the physical and effective mind of the two minds present in a human being. Moreover, it is in its existence due to a past life. In psychology, Dravya mun is the conscious and sub-conscious mind.
The material Dravya karmas are of eight types:
- Life span determining
- Physique determining
- Status determining and
Hethu is also known as causative factors that are responsible for the disease-causing pathologies. Internal or Nija and External or Agantu are the two types of Hetu.
The balance of the three doshas like Vata, Pitta, and Kapha can be disturbed by the Hetu. Moreover, Hetu is classified into factors:
Close factor: This factor provokes or encourages the disease by affecting the equilibrium of three doshas in three stages of the day, night, and digestion.
Distant factor: This can affect the equilibrium of the doshas but cannot develop the disease; however, the disease can be developed by other factors.
Weak factor: Can affect the equilibrium, but can’t develop the disease.
String factor: The strength in it causes disease or death after disturbing the equilibrium of the doshas.
Asatmiya Indriyartha Sanjog: Improper use of Gyanindriya and Karmindriya would lead to disease.
– Atiyog (overuse): When you overuse any sense organs, it would lead to disease related to that organ. Overeating would cause abdominal problems.
– Hinyog (underuse): When you use any organs less or don’t use them, then you get this problem.
– Mithayog (misuse): When you use any sense organ incorrectly or as per its capacity, the function might be totally damaged.
Pragyaparadh: Using your intellect to do incorrect things in spite of knowing its harmful effects falls under this factor.
– Dhi (Intellectual): Disease that is caused by doing something without the knowledge of it.
– Dhriti (awareness): Disease is caused when we do something even after knowing the harmful effects.
– Smruti (memory): Ailments or diseases due to memory loss.
Parinama (time): These are diseases caused due to the abrupt change in the weather under certain climatic conditions.
– Hinayog: Winters are generally colder; if they are less cold, you may get diseases.
– Mithyayog: Unexpected rain in winters would cause diseases.
– Atiyog: Too much of cold leads to diseases.
Dosha Hetu: Disturbance in the equilibrium of a particular dosha, but doesn’t cause any disease.
Vyadhihetu (diseased factor): You can easily identify the cause of a disease as it would be the direct one.
Ubhayahetu (combined factor): The same factor or cause disturbs the doshas’ equilibrium, and also causes the disease.
Utpadakhetu (Predisposing factor): The equilibrium of the doshas is disturbed, and the disease is also caused; however, the factors causing them are not the same. For example, during winter, you do not get any disease but Kapha Dosha is disturbed.
Vyanjakhetu (exciting factor): These factors excite the doshas but do not disturb their equilibrium; however, this excitement would certainly be the reason for the disease to be caused. For example, the phlegm in your body comes out in the form of running nose or sneezes.
Bahyahetu (external factor): External factors that are outside the body are responsible for causing the disease. Examples are poisons, unbalanced diet, bacteria or fungi, and so on.
Abhyantarhetu (internal factor): Internal factors inside the body are responsible for causing the disease. For example, the water, undigested food, and so on are responsible for causing disease.
Very common among the ailments are cold, cough, loss of appetite, anemia, obesity, hiccups, and so on.
Hidhma is otherwise known as Hikka in Sanskrit, and hiccup in English is common among people of all ages, right from infants to old people.
It gets its name from the sound “hic” that is made when we get this ailment. You get the same number of hiccups as that of your breath.
There are five classifications of Hidhma, which are Kshudra Hidhma, Gambira Hidhma, Annaja Hidhma, Mahati Hidhma, and Yamala Hidhma.
Normally, for treating hiccups in infants, either castor oil is applied on the top of the head or the infant is nursed by the mother, while drinking water is recommended for adults.
In this type, you tend to get mild or soft bouts because of increased exertion, which keeps on increasing Vata, and thereby producing Kshudra Hidhma. The root base of the shoulders is the origin of this type of Hikka, and this is a minor type.
The origin of this Hikka is the umbilicus or large intestine and is characterized by the more vibrating and yawning, sound of the hiccup. Most of the symptoms are similar to that of Maha Hikka.
Consumption of hard, dry, and improper food or fluid causes this kind of Hikka. Painless hiccups are produced when these consumed foods or fluids, aggravate Vata.
It is recommended to eat accustomed foods and fluids to subside the hiccups. If the sneezing follows the hiccups, it is recognized as well as Annaja Hikka or Hidhma, which means unaccustomed food-produced hiccups.
The origin of this hiccup is from cavernous inside.
It is characterized by sounds, forceful bouts, loss of actions of body, speech, the channel of food is obstructed, a feeling of vital organs being hit is produced, the body is bent backward, emaciation, and so on.
It is also known as Vegini and Parinamvati Hikka, as it appears in pair, and during the absorption of food. This occurs with force or vega, and is characterized by increasing during the time of digestion, tremors in head and neck, irrelevant talk, flatulence harsh thirst, vomiting, diarrhea, yawning, and so on.
How to treat Hidhma?
Anoint with the mixture of oil and salt, and administer sedation to the patient. Then give rice and curd for consumption. If the patient has a cough, an infectious ache in the heart region, vomiting, give a mild emesis therapy using Saindhava, honey, and Pippali. This should induce evacuation of bowels, and therefore, mix the mixture with any tart fruit & warm water.
If that does not solve the problem, prepare a cigarette with the paste of the root of Laksha, Eranda Devadaru, Mansi Manashila, Ela, and leaves of Haridra, seal it with some amount of ghee, and give it to the patient to smoke.
Sedation therapy must be provided to people fit or unfit for it. Warm milk with honey or oil should be poured over the throat and chest. This is one of the treatments for Hidhma.
Drugs for curing Hidhma
Churna, Lauha, Rasa Kalpa, Aasav, Ghrita, Bhasma, Arishtha, and Pishthi are few forms of drugs used in the treatment of Hidhma.
Aapa (Jala) Shabda
Jala or water, one of the five great elements, is one of the most important necessities of mankind, followed by air or Vayu.
Shabda or sound, Sparsha or touch, Roopa or form, and Rasa (taste) are the main characteristics of Jala.
Jala comes after Agni in the order of the five great elements. Taste or rasa is the basic and main attribute of Jala.
The basic property of Jala is its liquidity or Dhravatwa. Jala or Aapa is the main constituent in biological humor, as it helps in preserving many things.
Moreover, you can bring and keep two or more things together. Cold and wet are their qualities. However, it becomes difficult to choose something and stick to that due to the huge abundance of it.
Jala or Aapa constitutes 70% of the human being’s body, while only 30% is blood. Nature has made it possible to keep the cells of all the organs in a body using water.
Similarly, water binds the particles in herbs and minerals together. Water, a Mahabhootha makes the biological, chemical, and biochemical bonds possible. Major religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and so on consider Aapa or Jala as a deity.
Even Vedas consist of shlokas or mantras on the usefulness and importance of water, and how it had been of use during the Vedic period. Furthermore, it is also one of the four classical elements of ancient Greek philosophy and science.
Water has its own importance and usefulness apart from drinking it. One of the best features of water is that it can be recycled.
Using Jala or water, we can keep ourselves and the environment clean. This is used in the preparation of food and other drinks. It also beautifies our environment. It is also used in construction purposes, manufacturing units, agriculture, saving people and property from fire.
In olden days, it was used in performing rituals, taking a ritual bath, and also for accepting the objects to be tossed into it. The emotions, wisdom, the soul, and femininity are represented by water in the Wiccan tradition. Intelligence and wisdom are represented by water in Chinese tradition.
Rivers, lakes, ponds, wells, oceans, seas, and so on are the manifestations of water. It houses several animals like the frog, fishes, crocodile, water snakes, and so on, and also rich treasures like corals, pearls, and so on. 70% of our earth is water, and only 30% is land. Due to the advent of many industries, and manufacturing units, water consumption has increased.
Moreover, water pollution has also increased wherein the waterbed underground is slowly deteriorating. The demand for drinking water is increasing day by day as the volume of water is slowly decreasing.
By the process of desalination, sea or ocean water is processed and converted to drinking or edible water, by removing the salt.
Even though this is an artificial process, it is being followed in most of the countries surrounded or bordered by sea or ocean to meet the demand of need for water. Therefore, it is very important to conserve this treasure.
Kasra or Kushabde is the verbal root word for Kaasa. The abnormal sound produced from a human being’s mouth is Kaasa or cough.
During cough, there would be movement and painful effect on the chest, and therefore is named Kaasa. Cough or Kaasa are of five types. They are:
- Three Doshas, that is, Vata, Pitta, Kapha, cause three kinds of cough.
- Chest wound causes the fourth type of cough known as Kshataj.
- Consumption causes the fifth type of cough known as Kshayaj.
To determine the type of cough, there are Poorvaroopa or pre-indicating signs and symptoms. Those are:
- The feeling in the throat and the mouth of the affected would be as though they are covered with thorns and is known as ShookPurna Galaasyata.
- The affected would have itching in the throat and is known as Kanthe Kandushcha.
- The affected would have anorexia or Aruchi, and it would be difficult to swallow or consume food or anything, and is known as Bhojyanam Avarodh.
Factors causing cough or Kassa are as follows:
- It can be due to cold climatic conditions.
- It can also be due to the consumption of less or deficient food.
- It can be due to fasting, sometimes.
- Indulging in sex excessively.
- If urges and exertion are suppressed.
- Intake of coarse.
The symptoms or clinical features of Kaasa are irritation, fainting, debility, anxious expression, blackouts, dryness of chest, throat, and mouth, sounds like that of conch or cloud, horripilation, hoarseness of voice, intense pain in the chest, head, and cardiac region, and dry cough.
Symptoms of Pittaja Kaasa:
You get this kind of cough due to the eating of excessive heavy, slimy food, sweets, and carbonated drinks. Indicating signs and symptoms or clinical features of Pittaja Kaasa are anorexia, vomiting, excitement, heaviness, horripilation, sweetness in the mouth, moistening, malaise, coughing out the viscous phlegm without pain, and so on.
The factors that cause the Kshataja Kaasa are weightlifting, exerting oneself beyond one’s strength, working with horses or elephants, straining too much when one is suffering from the chest wound.
The symptoms for this cough are excruciating, piercing pain in the chest, joint pain, fever, thirst, abnormal voice, the cooing sound of pigeon during the bouts of cough, initially it starts with a dry cough, and later, the affected would throughout sputum with blood, and so on.
The factors that pave the way to this type of cough are the untimely intake of food, eating incompatible food, indulging oneself in excessive intercourse, suppressing the urges with disgust and anxiety, which results in loss of digestive power.
The symptoms of this Kaasa are anorexia, coryza, envious and disgusting, eyes become pretty, hands and legs become smooth, the sputum that is thrown out is fetid, green, red, and look like pus. Moreover, the feeling of the heart being thrown out during cough bout is more in this type of cough.
Few treatments given to the different types of coughs are the same as the symptoms coincide for a few types. You can give the affected, a glass of hot milk add a pinch of turmeric. You can even suggest the affected to have kalakand in his/her mouth and swallow the saliva.
Commonly used drugs for Kaasa are Churna, Lauha, Rasa Kalpa, Arishtha, Bhasma, Pishti, Leha, and Ghruta.
Work or activity or deed is known as karma. The process of meeting and separation depends on the factor, karma. It falls under resident Dravya; however, it is different from guna.
The activities that a person has done in the past, doing in the present and would do in the future would be known as a deed. Each of us is responsible for our own karma.
Based on our own experiences and creations, karma would be either good or bad. Karma governs one’s life. The cause and effect, action and reaction processes are dependent on this karma.
Karma can be classified into two. They are Adhyatmik and Laukika.
Adhyatmika: It refers to spirituality. Good social conduct or Sadvritta is related to spiritual life, and vice-versa.
Laukika: This is a reference to the daily activities, which is otherwise our routine work. There are different types of routine work or karma:
Utkshepan: Moving in the upper direction or moving away from the lower direction to its opposite direction is the exact meaning of Utkshepan. When two things are combined that process is also known as Utkshepan.
Apakshepan: It is also known as Avkshepan. With the combination in the lower side or direction, splitting happens in the upward direction. Avkshepan is known as the downward movement.
Sankhya: The process of counting something is known as Sankhya. It can even be known as numbering.
Yukti: If someone has any aim to prosper and plans towards it to achieve success in his/her efforts, it is known as Yukti.
Sanyoga: It is known as a combination. It is a process in which two things come in contact with each other.
The general belief is that if something like coming together of two things is destined to happen, it would surely happen whether we like or not. There are two types in Sanyog: intentional and not intentional.
Intentional is when you want your friend at the cinema theater and meet him/her there. Non-intentional is when you come across your acquaintance or friend suddenly on your way or at some place.
Vibhaga: It is known as splitting. When you separate two connected things, it is Vibhaga. There are three types of splitting. They are:
Dwandva Karmaj: When the effort to separate is from both the sides, it is known as Dwandva Karmaj.
Sarva Karmaj: When the effort to separate is made from all the sides, it is known as Sarva Karmaj.
Eka Karmaj: When the effort to separate comes only from one side, it is known as Eka Karmaj.
Prithaktva: It is also known as separation or differentiation. This refers to the quality of being able to distinguish between two things. For example, you are able to differentiate between a pen and pen stand. There are a few types of separation or differentiation:
Aanyogshan: When something cannot come together even with a thing of its own kind.
Vailakshama rupa: When two things that belong to the same family have both similarities and dissimilarities. For example, tiger and cat.
Anekta rupa: When there are dissimilarities in species of the same family. For example, human beings don’t look alike.
Pariman: It is known as size. You can measure them in the units of length, height, weight and so on. There are different types: microscopic, large, small, and greater.
Sanskar: To infest a property in someone to achieve a worthy thing or result is known as Sanskar. Ayurveda turns poisonous herbs into medicines through few processes.
Leanness or being lean is Karshya. Looking lean may not be attractive also. Both the lean and obese fall under eight despicable persons as per Charaka.
To be a healthy person, muscles, compactness, firmness of organs are in balanced proportion without becoming prey to the prowess of disorders as per him.
The buttocks, abdomen, neck, prominent vascular network (Dhamanijal Santataha), the remnant of skin and bone (Twagasthi Shesho, Ati Krusha) and thick nodes (Sthool Parva) would be dried in the case of a lean person.
As per Sushruta, Rasa Dhatu decides the lean or fattiness of a body.
The etiological factors that cause this leanness are excessive fasting, intake of rough food and drinks, to be on diet control, or eating Vata (dry and astringent) foods, subjecting oneself to too much of evacuation therapy, grief, worries, fear, excess study, or exercise or sexual intercourse, too much of bathing, suppressing the urge to sleep, thirst and hunger, anger, and so on.
There are few Roopas or the signs and symptoms that help you diagnose leanness.
It can be observed that tolerating the physical exercise, over saturation, hunger, thirst, disease, drugs (Kshutpipasamay-Aushadham) is not possible for a lean person.
He/she would feel too much of cold, heat and indulge oneself in too much of sexual intercourse (Ati-Shitoshna-Maithunam).
The spleen would enlarge in the over lean persons. They would be a victim of cough- Kasa, and wasting- Kshaya would become a habit.
They might be a victim of Dyspnoea- Shwasa, gracious tumor- Gulma, piles- Arsha, abdominal diseases- Udara, Raktapitta, disorders of Vata and so on. Moreover, the diseases or ailments of the lean person are sometimes untreatable due to low immunity of a lean person.
One has to follow the following conducts in order to cure this ailment:
- Put in the habit of Day sleep (Diva-Swapna)
- Exhilaration (Harsha). Make sure that you are in good spirits.
- Comfortable bed (Sukha Shayya) for sleep. Avoid any discomfort while sleeping.
- Relaxation of mind (Manaso Nivrutti). Confusions, anger, frustrations, and should be avoided.
- Keeping away from mental work that would relieve you of your mental peace. Sexual intercourse and physical exercise also would do well for leanness.
- Should live amongst the people and the environment one likes.
- Tailabhyanga (daily oil massage) is recommended.
- Snigdha Udvartan (unctuous anointing).
- Snana (bath) is a must.
- Gandha-Mala-Neshevanam (using perfumery and garlands). This would help you to be in good and high spirits.
– Shukla vasa (wearing a white dress).
- Consume sweet and unctuous food.
- New cereals, fresh wine, meat soup of domestic, marshy and aquatic animals should be consumed if you would like to.
- Eat curd, ghee, milk, sugarcane, rice, black gram, wheat.
- Products of jaggery.
If one wants to look good with a balanced body and desires to give up the leanness should follow these:
– Use of unctuous and sweet enema.
– Yatha-Kala Dosha-Vasechana (timely drainage of Dosha)
– Regular use of Rasayana (bulk promoting) and Vajikarana (aphrodisiac) formulations.
Commonly used drugs
Vidarikanda, Ashwagandha, Payassya, Vidari, Shatavari, Bala, Atibala and Nagabala are some of the bulk promotional drugs.
With excessive pendulous buttocks and abdomen caused by excessive fat and muscles, a human being is called overweight.
The deficiency of energy and metabolism are the causes of obesity. The eight despicable persons as per Charakha integrated obese persons.
Over saturation causes Medoroga, it means underneath Santarpanaja Vikar. Obesity if left uncared can even cause death. Obese people are more prone to diseases like arthritis, cardiac problems, diabetes, and so on.
The etiological factors of Medoroga are the physical activity’s absence, day sleep, consumption of too much of sweet, greasy substances (Pichchhil), meat, fresh wine, seafood meat, milk and it’s derived, flour and jaggery preparations that would increase Kapha. Be short of mental work, and genetic defects are also the factors contributing to Medoroga.
Signs & Symptoms
The symptomatic signs of Medoroga are the accumulation of fat in large quantities all over the body preventing the person to do all the physical activities, breathing problem due to even little exertion, excessive thirstiness, hunger, and sleep, sudden breath catching, foul body smell and deteriorating physically and sexually.
Emesis, physical exercise, bloodletting, fasting, purgation, smoking, sweating, eating bumpy food grains, and consumption of Abhayaprasha-honey mix are few ways to treat Medoroga.
A mixture of Shunthi, Vidanga, ash residue of black iron and Yavakshara, with honey, can be used for curing obesity.
Another method to treat obesity is the combination of Amalaki powder and barley in the same amounts.
Choorna, Kashay or decoction, Vati or pills, Rasaushadi, Lepa or local applications, Shodhana therapy or evacuative therapy, Lekhan Basti with Ushakadi Gana are recommended for treating obesity.
Chavyadi, Phalatrikadi, Vidangadya are popular among Choornas. Trifala, Bilvadi, Madhujala Sidhapeya, and Shilajatu are common Kashay or decoctions available. Navak, Amrutadya are the known pills or Vati used for treating obesity.
Under Rasaushadi, Trimurti, Rasabhasma yoga, Loha Rasayana Wadavagni, are the popular ones available. Shirishadi Ubatan, Mocharasadi, Priyangvadi, Jambudaladi Ubatan, and Babbuladi Ubatan are known local applications. The above drugs are from Ayurveda to treat obesity.
Pathya-Apathya for obese people (to-do and not-to-do)
One should worry, do excess body exercises, or indulge in sexual- intercourse. Moreover, one should sprinkle and rub different powders of medicinal value over the body.
Sunbath, Fasting, and brisk walking are recommended. Undergoing panchakarma cure like Virechana and emesis (purgatives and laxatives) would be helpful.
Consuming Barley or Yava, Old rice, masoor, pungent, honey, and sour edible things is good for obesity. Eating leafy vegetables, Trifala, Trikatu, drinking hot water or excess water before meals is a recommended treatment.
One should not undergo Rasayana Aushadhi or rejuvenating therapies, and so on. It is recommended to avoid consumption of Shashtishali (rice), all milk products, urad, sweets, sugarcane products, wheat, curd, fat, oily foods and particularly foods rich in hydrogenated fat like Vanaspathi, ghee, and so on.
The slow phasing movement of normal physiology to a disease-causing pathology is dealt with in Nidan Panchak.
Diagnosis of disease, knowledge of its origin, and tracing evolution can be done through Nidan in Ayurveda.
The five tools to identify diseases and the pathology are Hetu (Nidan), Poorvaroop, Roop, Upshaya, and Samprapti.
The descriptions of the tools are as follows:
Hethu, the causative factors are responsible for leading to the disease-causing pathologies. Internal or Nija and External or Agantu are the two types of Hetu. The balance of the three doshas like Vata, Pitta, and Kapha can be disturbed by the Hetu.
Hetu is further classified into different factors depending upon which dosha’s equilibrium is disturbed. They are a close factor, distant factor, weak factor, and string factor. Asatmiya Indriyartha Sanjog, Pragyapradh, Parinama or time,
Dosha Hetu, diseased factor, combined factor, predisposing factor, exciting factor, an external factor, and internal factors are also included in Hethu.
Poorvaroop is the signs and symptoms that develop during the development of pathology of the disease.
Pathology deals with the manifestation of the function of disease and anatomy.
With these signs and symptoms, we will be able to identify the disease, and this is Poorvaroop, which is of two types: Samanya Poorvaroop or general pre-indicating signs and symptoms, and Vishesh Poorvaroop or special indicating signs and symptoms.
While Samanya Poorvaroop helps us identify the disease in the broader sense from the general pre-indicating symptoms or signs that show during the development of disease; however, does not help in diagnosing the subtype of the disease or the exact disease.
Vishesh Poorvaroop helps us identify both the disease and its subtype with the help of special pre-indicating signs or symptoms.
The signs and symptoms that appear only after the disease development help in diagnosing the disease and this is known as Roop or indicative signs and symptoms. Roop is also known as Sansthan, Vainjan, Linga, Lakshan, Chinham or Akruthi.
It is also known as a therapeutic test that helps to treat an ailment through medicine, diet, and conduct. The different types of treatments are Hethuviprit or anti-factor, Vyadhiviprit or anti-disease, Hethuvyadhiviparit or anti-factor, and disease), Hetuviprithkari or anti causative subjective, Vyadhivipritkari or anti-disease subjective and Hetu-Vyadhivipritkari or anti-factor or anti-disease subjective.
Each factor has its own subfactors. The Anti-factor is divided into Hetuviprit Aushadi, Hetuviprit anna, and Hetuviprit vihara. The disease factor is divided into Vyadhiviprit Aushadhi, Vyadhiviprit anna, and Vyadhiviprit Vihar.
The anti-factor and anti-disease factor are divided into Hetuvyadhiviprit Aushadhi, Hetuvyadhiviprit anna, and Hethuvyadhiviprit vihar.
The anti causative subjective factor is divided into medicine, diet, and conduct. The anti-disease subjective is divided into medicine, diet, and conduct. The anti-factor & anti-disease subjective is again divided into medicine, diet, and conduct again.
It is known as Pathology in English, and in Sanskrit, it is Jati and Agati. From the disturbance of equilibrium of doshas, and undergoing different stages, to the causing of the disease, the process is known as Samprapti. Sanchaya, Prakop, Prasar, Sthansanshraya, Vyakti, and Bheda are the different stages in Samprapti.
Ayurveda is considered as the oldest in the field of medicine. With its origin in India, it is more than 5000 years old.
Ayurveda deals with the scientific way of leading life. Ayu means life, and Veda means the science of life.
Considered as a pioneer in the field of medicine, it is the oldest and richest medical system from which many branches of medicine have evolved.
It is a belief that the great saint Veda Vyasa wrote Ayurveda along with Vedas and Vedic literature.
Mother of all healing is an appropriate name given to Ayurveda. Atreya and Dhanvantari are the two eyes of Ayurveda. The field of general medicine is dealt with by Atreya and the field of surgery is dealt with Dhanvantari.
Ayurveda, it’s not only a medicine, but also a way of living life spiritually as its main goal. It also deals with day-to-day activities from government functioning, family life, astrology, health to yoga. With an emphasis on prevention is better than cure, Ayurveda believes strongly in leading life wisely with the right thinking and usage of herbs along with a healthy diet.
With its roots and branches in all spheres of life, Ayurveda can be considered as fifth Veda. Atreya Samhita, the oldest book of Ayurveda is compiled from all Vedas. Other best and popular books that are still available are Charaksamhita, Rachayita (Writer), and Sushrut Samhita.
Charak Samhita stands the best, in spite of the availability of many books in Ayurveda, as it is the only book that covers the medicine branch of Ayurveda, that is, treatment methods in Ayurveda totally.
Sankhya, Yoga, Nyay, Vaisheshik, Vedanta, and Mimamsa, in verses form, are found in Charak Samhita.
Interest and patience are the key factors to master Ayurveda, as each and every Sutra is explained in the form of a novel.
The beginning lines of ‘Jalpakalpatary’ (Tika on Charaksanhita) sings the glory of Charak Samhita by mentioning that it is a tree, which contains all branches of science.
It is believed that the knowledge of Ayurveda was given by Brahma directly to Prajapati, who in turn taught Ashwinikumar, and he, to Indra, who in turn taught it to sage Bharadwaja, and he, in turn, taught it to all other sages. Punarvasu Atreya who was a student of Bhardwaja.
One Samhita was prepared by Agnivesha. Modifications were made in Agnivesh Tantra by Charak, and his name was given everywhere. Moreover, chapters 12 and 17 were latter inclusions of Drudhbala.
Some people like Aupadhenav, Vaitarar, Aurabhra and so on met Dhanwantri, who was leading a retired life and became his students due to their belief that diseases and sorrow were engulfing their lives. Ayurveda was taught to them by Dhanwantri so they everyone could lead a healthy life.
Ayurveda is divided into eight branches depending on the lifespan of a person: Shalya, Shalakya, Kay, Chikitsa Bhootvidya, Kaumarbhrutya, Agadatantra, Rosayantantra, and Vajikarantantra.
While Sushrut Samhita was influenced by Dhanwantri, Charak Samhita was influenced by Athreya.