An incorrect functioning of an organ or a structure can be classified under disease. If a plant or human being has any abnormality or complaint or derangement or indisposition or disorder in any part of the body, it is defined as disease.
The factors that cause the physical or mental pain or distress are called the disease. Diseases can affect both the physical structure (internal and external parts of the body) and the mind.
There are 10 well known synonyms of the disease in Sanskrit. They are Rog, Papma, Jvara, Vyadhi, Dukha, Amaya, Yakshma, Atanka, Gada, and Abadha. Let us see the description of each synonym.
Rog: A disease that gives pain to any part of your body. In Sanskrit, it means disease, and its derivation is from Ruga, pain or misery. Human beings get both physical and mental diseases, and pains; however, the mental pains are more dangerous and painful than the physical ones. The examples of this mental disease are anger, fear, anxiety, stress, and so on, while the examples of the physical disease are pain in any part of the body.
Papma: A disease caused due to our sins, both physically and mentally. Mental sins are our desires, greed, jealousy, pride, covetousness, and so on. Physical sins are being a glutton, involving oneself in adultery, and so on.
Jvara: A disease caused by nature. Jvara, in Sanskrit means to be hot, fever. In other words, to be ill. It is caused in the duodenum, and mostly it is an air-borne disease.
Vyadhi: A disease that causes abnormalities, disorder, ailments, and so on in a living being is Vyadhi.
Dukha: In Sanskrit, it means sadness. It is the result of any physical pain, illness, loss of loved ones, even old age, or any disease.
Amaya: A disease caused due to indigestion. When the food remains undigested or is improperly digested, you tend to have improperly processed food or drink known as Ama. You experience these kinds of diseases due to decreased enzyme activity. In the case of internal diseases, their origin is Ama, while in the external disease the end is production of Ama.
Yakshma: It indicates Tuberculosis. It also indicates a syndrome, which means few symptoms together indicate a disease.
Atanka: Agony or miserable feeling. Normally, when a human being is infected with a disease, you can see misery in his/her life.
Gada: Sometimes, a disease can be caused through or by various factors, and if all the factors arise at the same time, it is Gada.
Abadha: When you feel constant physical or mental discomfort, or have constant physical or mental sufferings, it is known as Abadha.
You can classify the diseases into six categories depending on the instability of Doshas, a different combination of five elements (Air, Water, Earth, Fire, and Ether) in the form of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. They are:
Samanyaj: When there is a problem with the stability of one or all the Doshas, this kind of disease arise.
Nanatmaj: When there is a problem of stability with just one Dosha, this kind of disease would occur.
Sadhya and Asadhya: Sadhya means diseases that can be cured while Asadhya refers to chronic illness.
Sadhya is classified into Sukhasadhya and Kruchchhasadhya, while Asadhya into Yapya and Pratyakhey.
Agantuj: When you get a disease due to foreign bodies entering the system.
Nijroga: When all the Doshas are unstable, you get this kind of disease.
Manas: When the Doshas interfere with the nervous system functioning, a person tends to get this disease.
Most of the diseases result as the consequence of any kind of genetic or development issues, infections, poisons, or so on. Most of them are curable with the help of Ayurveda.