Vishesha is otherwise known as peculiarity. It is the property that differentiates one substance from other. It is also referred to as dissimilarity, as it is involved in breaking the unity.
By breaking the unity, it decreases the strength. Therefore, it is known as Harasa Hetu Vishesha or dissimilarity that can decrease the things.
It is among the seven categories of Padarth Vidnyan, the study of raw materials.
Vishesha or peculiarity is classified into three types. They are:
– Dravya Vishesha
– Guna Vishesha
– Karma Vishesha
In this type, only concern is about different dravyas or substances. For example, you can consume flesh and increase your diet intake by which both bones and muscles increase; however, if you consume bones, there is no increase in the muscles.
In this type, only concern is about different gunas or properties. This can be explained better with an example. When you use cold water that has the sheeta guna, enhancement of kapha dosha is prevalent; however, if you use hot water, the suppression of kapha dosha can be seen.
In this type, only concern is about karmas or actions. For example, walking decreases the kapha dosha, as this dosha has immobile or Achala karma, which aggravates when a person rests or stays idle for a long time, and gets suppressed or decreased when the person walks.
Vishesha is considered to be opposite of universal, as universal embraces everything under the universe, while vishesha differentiates between things.
Space, time, Moksha, minds, souls, the atoms of earth, water, light and air are considered to be eternal or eternal substances, as they do not have parts. These eternal substances have a unique individuality, and that is Vishesha.
You cannot give the property of Vishesha to worldly things like your furniture, your accessories, and so on. Vishesha cannot be imparted to these articles as these things have distinct, distinguishable different parts, and there is no need for something to show the different parts in a worldly article or thing.
It is only for the eternal substances that are not in parts, we have to find the ultimate differences, and this is where Vishesha comes into picture.
Due to the individuals, in which they are subsisting are innumerable, these are known as innumerable peculiarities, which are supersensible entities.
Apart from Ayurveda, the mention of Vishesha is even done in religions like Hinduism. Vishesha is one among the four Central Saivite dikshas. The other being Samaya, Nirvana, and Abhisheka. The dharma or righteousness is also divided into two. They are Samanya Dharma and Vishesha Dharma. Moreover, it is believed that the soul has its own vishesha because it enjoys the results of its own deeds, but the body’s experience is made of parts, and is non eternal; therefore, there is no Vishesha or peculiarity attributed to the body.